Sekarang lagi asik ngebahas tentang Voip di kantor, fokus kita sekarang konekin catalyst ke voip, oke… untuk setting topoloy voip sendiri akan dibahas di post yang akan datang.🙂
Oke ,, setting voipnya ip address dan lain lain..
kemudian kita fokus pada catalyst nya, buka console dari catalyst, waduh capek nulis.. yaudah berikut hasil copy dari web cisco tentang configurasinya , disesuaikan dengan kondisi network anda:
When you connect an IP phone to a switch using a trunk link, it can cause high CPU utilization in the switches. As all the VLANs for a particular interface are trunked to the phone, it increases the number of STP instances the switch has to manage. This increases the CPU utilization. Trunking also causes unnecessary broadcast / multicast / unknown unicast traffic to hit the phone link.
In order to avoid this, remove the trunk configuration and keep the voice and access VLAN configured along with Quality of Service (QoS). Technically, it is still a trunk, but it is called a Multi-VLAN Access Port (MVAP). Because voice and data traffic can travel through the same port, you should specify a different VLAN for each type of traffic. You can configure a switch port to forward voice and data traffic on different VLANs. Configure IP phone ports with a voice VLAN configuration. This configuration creates a pseudo trunk, but does not require you to manually prune the unnecessary VLANs.
The voice VLAN feature enables access ports to carry IP voice traffic from an IP phone. The voice VLAN feature is disabled by default. The Port Fast feature is automatically enabled when voice VLAN is configured. When you disable voice VLAN, the Port Fast feature is not automatically disabled. These are the options in the voice VLAN configuration:
Switch(config-if)#switchport voice vlan ? <1-4094> Vlan for voice traffic dot1p Priority tagged on PVID none Do not tell telephone about voice vlan untagged Untagged on PVID
- Enter a voice VLAN ID in order to send CDP packets that configure the IP phone to transmit voice traffic in 802.1Q frames, tagged with the voice VLAN ID and a Layer 2 CoS value (the default is 5 for voice traffic and 3 for voice control traffic). Valid VLAN IDs are from 1 to 4094. The switch puts the 802.1Q voice traffic into the voice VLAN.
- Enter the dot1p keyword in order to send CDP packets that configure the IP phone to transmit voice traffic in 802.1p frames, tagged with VLAN ID 0 and a Layer 2 CoS value (the default is 5 for voice traffic and 3 for voice control traffic). The switch puts the 802.1p voice traffic into the access VLAN.
- Enter the untagged keyword in order to send CDP packets that configure the IP phone to transmit untagged voice traffic. The switch puts the untagged voice traffic into the access VLAN.
- Enter the none keyword in order to allow the IP phone to use its own configuration and transmit untagged voice traffic. The switch puts the untagged voice traffic into the access VLAN.
This example details that VLAN 10 carries data traffic, and VLAN 20 carries voice traffic:
|Configure the Catalyst Switch to Carry Both Voice and Data Traffic|
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 2/5 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#Switchport access vlan 10 Switch(config-if)#switchport voice vlan 20 !--- Configures the IP phone to transmit voice traffic in !--- 802.1Q frames tagged with voice VLAN ID 20. end
Note: You cannot disable the PC port span feature in 7960/40 phones.
Cisco offers a comprehensive range of Catalyst switches that support PoE with 802.3af compliant, which also supports Cisco pre-standard PoE implementation. IEEE 802.3af-2003 describes five power classes that a device can belong to. The default power classification within IEEE 802.3af delivers 15.4W per power device. Delivery of PoE that uses the IEEE 802.3af default classification can significantly increase the power requirements on both the Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) switch and the power infrastructure. In order to provide PoE in a cost effective and efficient manner, Catalyst switches support intelligent power management in addition to IEEE 802.3af classification. This enables a powered device and PSE to negotiate their respective capabilities in order to explicitly manage how much power is required for the device, and also how the PSE-capable switch manages the allocation of power to individual powered devices.
Issue this show power inline command in order to view the default power consumption a switch can supply:
Switch#show power inline consumption default Default PD consumption : 15400 mW
By default, all the switch ports are configured to automatically detect and power the PoE devices. Issue this show power inline command in order to view the power inline configuration status of any port:
Switch#show power inline FastEthernet 2/5 Interface Admin Oper Power Device Class Max (Watts) --------- ------ ---------- ------- ------------------- ----- ---- Fa2/5 auto on 7.0 IP Phone 7960 n/a 15.4 !--- You can see the Admin status as auto. This is the default configuration.
You can issue the power inline command in order to configure the inline power of an individual port. This shows the power inline configuration options:
Switch(config-if)#power inline ? auto Automatically detect and power inline devices consumption Configure the inline device consumption never Never apply inline power static High priority inline power interface
- Auto—By default, PoE-capable ports are configured to auto. The powered devices are powered up on a first-come, first-serve basis. If not enough inline power is available from the power supplies for all the powered devices in auto mode, there is no guarantee which powered devices are powered up.
- Static—Static ports have a higher priority than auto ports in terms of power allocation and shutdown. The switch allocates power for a static port when it is configured. Power is then reserved for the port even when nothing is connected. The amount of power allocated can either use the default maximum value (15.4W) or can be specified when this option is used. This allocated amount is never adjusted by IEEE class or by CDP messages.
- Never—The supervisor engine does not direct the switching module to power up the port even if a non-powered phone is connected.
With the static mode, the powered device is guaranteed to come online when plugged in. This is typically used for higher-priority users, such as corporate executives or wireless access points. However, if the IEEE class wattage of the powered device is greater than the maximum wattage of the static port, the powered device is not powered up. Similarly, in the case of a Cisco prestandard PoE, if the CDP message from the powered device indicates that the wattage required is greater than the maximum allocated on the static port, the port is powered down. In situations where the number of static ports desired exceeds the capabilities of the power supply, a newly designated static port is placed in an error-disable state, and 0W are allocated. If the switch needs to shut down powered devices because a power supply fails and there is insufficient power, auto-powered devices are shut before static-powered devices.
This example shows the power inline configuration of a switch port. As explained earlier in this section, the default power inline configuration of a port is auto. If the default configuration is changed and you want to configure the port back to auto, configure the port as described here:
|Configure Inline Power Support for the Catalyst Switch that runs Cisco IOS|
Switch#configure terminal Switchj(config)#interface fastethernet 2/5 Switch(config-if)#power inline auto !--- Configures inline power support on fast Ethernet port 2/5.
You can use the auto-QoS feature to simplify the deployment of QoS features that exist. Auto-QoS makes assumptions about the network design. As a result, the switch can prioritize different traffic flows and appropriately use the egress queues instead of using the default QoS behavior. The default is that QoS is disabled. Then, the switch offers best-effort service to each packet, regardless of the packet content or size, and sends it from a single queue.
Auto-QoS configures QoS classification and configures egress queues. Before you configure auto-QoS, make sure you do not have any QoS configured on the switch. When you configure auto-QoS for the first time on the switch, QoS is enabled on the switch if it is disabled, and configures queues and thresholds in the global configuration. Finally, it configures the switch port to trust the incoming CoS parameters and configures the traffic-shaping parameters for that port. After this, every time you configure any port with auto-QoS, it only configures the switch port with QoS parameters.
Enable the debug auto qos command in the enable mode and configure the auto-qos on the switch port in order to find out what QoS configurations are applied during auto-QoS configuration. The debug auto qos shows the commands that are applied on the switch.
After you issue the auto qos command, you can change the QoS configuration as per your requirement. However, this is not recommended. You can see the options available for the auto qos voice command here:
Switch(config-if)#auto qos voip ? cisco-phone Trust the QoS marking of Cisco IP Phone cisco-softphone Trust the QoS marking of Cisco IP SoftPhone trust Trust the DSCP/CoS marking
|Configure Auto-QoS for the Catalyst Switches that run IOS|
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 2/5 Switch(config-if)#auto qos voip cisco-phone !--- Configures the port to trust the CoS labels !--- in the incoming packets and configures the !--- traffic-shaping parameters.
Although the auto qos command syntax is same on all the Catalyst switches, the QoS configurations, which are applied on the Catalyst switches by auto-QoS, are different amongst the Catalyst switches.
If the voice traffic is going to cross the switch via the trunk links, you need to configure the QoS parameters on the trunk ports. In this case, you need to issue the auto qos voip trust command instead of the auto qos voip cisco-phone command.
|Configure Auto-QoS on the Trunk Links of the Catalyst Switches that run IOS|
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 1/1 Switch(config-if)#auto qos voip trust !--- Configures the port to trust the CoS labels !--- in the incoming packets and configures the !--- traffic-shaping parameters.
If the voice traffic crosses the Layer 3 link, you need to configure the port with the auto qos voip trust command and you need to configure the port to trust dscp. This example shows the configuration of the Layer 3 port to carry voice traffic:
|Configure Auto-QoS on the Layer 3 Port in the Catalyst Switch that runs IOS|
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 1/1 Switch(config-if)#auto qos voip trust !--- Configures the port to trust the CoS labels !--- in the incoming packets and configures the !--- traffic-shaping parameters. Switch(config-if)#mls qos trust dscp !--- Configures the port to trust the DSCP labels !--- in the incoming packets. This command is for !--- Catalyst 3560/3750/6500 Switches. or Switch(config-if)#qos trust dscp !--- Configures the port to trust the DSCP labels !--- in the incoming packets. This command is for !--- Catalyst 4500 Switches.
In Catalyst 3560, 3750, and 4500 Switches that run Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2 and later, there are few predefined macros available to configure the switch ports. These are examples of macros and their roles in the configuration of switch port to support IP phones:
- cisco-phone—This macro is for the switch port where the IP phone is directly connected to it and a PC can be connected to the phone. This macro configures the port with the access VLAN, voice VLAN, port security, spanning-tree portfast/bpduguard, and auto qos voip cisco-phone.
- cisco-switch—This macro is for the uplink ports from the access switch to the distribution layer switch. If your voice traffic crosses the switch across the trunk links, you can use the cisco-switch macro in order to configure the uplink port. This macro configures the port with dot1q trunk, spanning-tree link-type point-to-point, and auto qos voip trust. This macro should not be used with the etherchannel/port groups.
Note: These switches support two types of macros:
- Smartport macros—This macro is discussed in this section. For more information, refer to Configuring Smartports Macros.
- Interface macros—This macro is user-defined and is used to automatically select a range of interfaces for configuration. For more information, refer to Configuring and Using Interface Range Macros.
Issue this show command in order to see the available macro:
Switch#show parser macro brief default global : cisco-global default interface: cisco-desktop default interface: cisco-phone default interface: cisco-switch default interface: cisco-router default interface: cisco-wireless
Issue this show command in order to view the script of the macro:
Switch#show parser macro name cisco-phone # Cisco IP phone + desktop template # macro keywords $access_vlan $voice_vlan # VoIP enabled interface - Enable data VLAN # and voice VLAN # Recommended value for access vlan should not be 1 switchport access vlan $access_vlan switchport mode access # Update the Voice VLAN value which should be # different from data VLAN # Recommended value for voice vlan should not be 1 switchport voice vlan $voice_vlan # Enable port security limiting port to a 2 MAC # addressess -- One for desktop on data vlan and # one for phone on voice vlan switchport port-security switchport port-security maximum 2 # Ensure port-security age is greater than one minute # and use inactivity timer switchport port-security violation restrict switchport port-security aging time 2 switchport port-security aging type inactivity # Enable auto-qos to extend trust to attached Cisco phone auto qos voip cisco-phone # Configure port as an edge network port spanning-tree portfast spanning-tree bpduguard enable
This example shows the configuration of switch ports in the IP phone environment:
|Configure the Switch Using a Predefined Macro|
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 2/5 Switch(config-if)#macro apply $access_vlan 10 $voice_vlan 20 !--- Configures the access port to connect the IP phone. !--- The PC connects to the IP phone. It configures the port that !--- belongs to access VLAN 10 and voice VLAN 20. It also configures !--- auto qos voip cisco-phone. Switch(config-if)#exit Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 1/1 Switch(config-if)#macro apply cisco-switch $native_vlan 10 !--- Configures the uplink port as dot1q trunk port !--- with native VLAN 10. It also configures auto qos voip trust.
Issue this show interface command in order to confirm that the configuration works properly on switches that run Cisco IOS:
Switch#show interface fastethernet 2/5 switchport Name:Fa2/5 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: static access Operational Mode: static access Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: negotiate Operational Trunking Encapsulation: native Negotiation of Trunking: Off Access Mode VLAN: 10 (VLAN0010) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Administrative Native VLAN tagging: enabled Voice VLAN: 20 (VLAN0020) Administrative private-vlan host-association: none Administrative private-vlan mapping: none Administrative private-vlan trunk native VLAN: none Administrative private-vlan trunk Native VLAN tagging: enabled Administrative private-vlan trunk encapsulation: dot1q Administrative private-vlan trunk normal VLANs: none Administrative private-vlan trunk private VLANs: none Operational private-vlan: none Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001 Capture Mode Disabled Capture VLANs Allowed: ALL Protected: false Unknown unicast blocked: disabled Unknown multicast blocked: disabled Appliance trust: none SUMBER : http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps4324/products_configuration_example09186a0080722cdb.shtml